This review covers the main transcriptional mechanisms
that control membrane phospholipid synthesis in
bacteria. The fatty acid components are the most energetically
expensive modules to produce; thus, the regulation
of fatty acid production is very tightly controlled to match
the growth rate of cells. Gram-negative and Gram-positive
bacteria have evolved different structural classes of regulators
to control the genes required for fatty acid biosynthesis.
Also, there are other transcriptional regulators that allow the
cells to alter the structure of fatty acids in existing phospholipid
molecules or to modify the structures of exogenous
fatty acids prior to their incorporation into the bilayer.
A major thrust for future research in this area is the identification
of the ligands or effectors that control the DNA binding
activity of the transcriptional regulators of fatty acid
biosynthesis. With the exception of malonyl-CoA regulation
of FapR from Bacillus subtilis and long-chain acyl-CoA regulation
of FadR from Escherichia coli and DesT from Pseudomonasaeruginosa
, the identity of these intracellular regulators remains unknown.—Zhang, Y-M., and C. O. Rock. Transcriptional
regulation in bacterial membrane lipid synthesis.
J. Lipid Res. 2009. 50: S115–S119.