THE BACULOVIRUSES OCCLUSION-DERIVED VIRUS:


By jpeza - Posted on 25 Junio 2009

Fecha Publicación: 
1 Ene 2006
Nombre de Revista: 
Datos del paper
Autor Principal: 
Jeffery Slack
Volumen: 
69
Página Inicial: 
99
Página Final: 
165
Abstract: 

Baculoviruses are a family of arthropod-specific viruses found ubiquitously

in the environment and have been isolated from more than

600 host insect species including the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera,

Diptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanera, and Trichoptera

(Adams and McClintock, 1991; Herniou et al., 2003; Larsson, 1984;Martignoni and Iwai, 1986;Murphy et al., 1995; Tinsley and Kelly, 1985).

Most baculovirus species have been isolated from Lepidoptera and the

majority of nonlepidopteran isolates have not been well characterized.

They are DNA viruses with closed, circular, double-stranded DNA genomes

ranging from 80 to 180 kbp in size. The genomes are packaged in

bacillus-shaped nucleocapsids, and the name “baculovirus” is in reference

to the nucleocapsid shape. Presently, the genomes from 29 baculovirus

species have been sequenced providing a database of more than

4000 genes (Hiscock and Upton, 2000).

Baculoviruses play an important ecological role regulating the size of

insect populations (Evans, 1986; Odindo, 1983). For many decades, baculoviruses

have been applied as targeted biocontrol agents against

forestry and agriculture pests. Baculovirus insecticides have been

effective against insect pests such as velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia

gemmatalis) (Moscardi, 1999), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea)(

Zhang, 1994), and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (Cook et al., 2003).

Baculovirus-based biocontrol applications have been restricted to

lepidopteran and hymenopteran (sawflies) pests. Mosquito-specific baculoviruses

have been characterized (Andreadis et al., 2003; Moser et al.,2001) with the potential to develop them for biocontrol of mosquitoes.

Baculoviruses are transmitted to insects by the oral route mediated

by the occlusion-derived virus (ODV). This is reference to the occlusion

of orally infectious baculoviruses in protein crystals called occlusion

bodies (OBs). It is important to study the structure and function

of ODVs and OBs because it expands the horizon for the application

of baculovirus as insecticides. The ODV is also specialized to exploit

the insect midgut which is one of the most extreme biological environments

where the viruses are subject to caustic pH and digestive

proteases. Understanding the molecular biology of the ODV should

reveal new frontiers in protein chemistry. Finally, ODVs establish

infection in insect gut tissues that are virtually nonsupportive to virus

replication and which are continuously sloughed away. ODVs carry

with them a battery of proteins that enable them to rapidly exploit and

harness these unstable cells for virus replication. Learning about these

proteins will have implications in biocontrol and biotechnology.

Dirección del Autor: 

Laboratory for Molecular Virology, Great Lakes Forestry Centre

Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada

Keywords: 
Baculoviruses ; insecticides ; biocontrol of mosquitoes
Coautores: 

Basil M. Arif

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